Dr Giulio Ongaro

Dr Giulio Ongaro

ESRC fellow

Department of Anthropology

Room No
OLD 606A
Connect with me

Akha, English, Italian, Lao
Key Expertise

About me

My research lies in the areas of medical anthropology, shamanism, and ritual efficacy, with an ethnographic focus on highland Laos. As part of an ESRC-funded PhD, I conducted 19 months of ethnographic fieldwork among the Akha, a group of nonliterate swidden farmers living in highland Laos and neighbouring borderlands. I studied for the first time in detail the Lao Akha medical system – a system based on animism, animal sacrifice and shamanism – examining the knowledge and techniques mastered by Akha shamans, the nosology and aetiology of the system, the phenomenology of ritual healing, and Akha overall medical philosophy. I focused in particular on ritual efficacy – on how healing ritual works and how people think it works.

Parallel to my ethnographic fieldwork, I independently conducted research within the science of ‘placebo effects’ (a field of study that investigates empirically how therapeutic rituals can elicit clinically significant responses) and surrounding areas of cognitive science and philosophy of mind. My interest in the topic developed from a MSc in Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. It continued throughout my PhD at the LSE and led to relevant publications in neuroscience and philosophy journals.

My PhD thesis made novel contributions to medical anthropology by examining Akha healing rituals from the perspective of placebo science. Knowledge of placebo effects allowed me to produce an informed analysis of the workings of Akha healing rituals. Conversely, I showed that the Akha material sheds light on longstanding problems in anthropological theory of rationality, which are captured by the very notion of ‘placebo effect’ and its contradictions. Espousing a kind of anthropology that looks at the ‘other’ for insights into one’s own culture and the human condition, the thesis examined how Akha resolve these contradictions, and what the biomedical worldview can learn from them.

I am currently working on a monograph on the Akha medical system, and on several new projects. These include an anthropological account of 'voodoo death', a series of papers on the 'extended mind', and a prolegomenon to the global history of psychiatry that looks at the epistemic value of animistic medical philosophies. 

Expertise Details

Laos; upland Southeast Asia; medical anthropology; shamanism; animism; ritual efficacy; placebo effects; magic; healing; rationality; global history of psychiatry; psychiatry; history of science; cognitive science; philosophy of mind

Selected publications

Selected publications

Ongaro, G., Hardman, D., & Deschenaux, I. (2022). Why the extended mind is nothing special but is central. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Science

Hardman, D., & Ongaro, G. (2020). ‘Subjunctive medicine: a manifesto’. Social Science & Medicine, 113039.

Ongaro, G. and Kaptchuk, T. (2019) ‘Symptom perception, placebo effects, and the Bayesian brain.’ PAIN 160(1), 1.

Ongaro, G. and Ward, D. (2017) ‘An enactive account of placebo effects.’ Biology & Philosophy. 32(4), 507-533.

Ongaro, G. (2016) ‘Wild pigs cannot enter.’ Mekong Review: Quarterly Literary Journal. Vol 2(5).